Summer Course 2006

 

Brussels


Since 1999 the European Academy of Legal Theory has organised a summer course in legal theory. It lasts for three weeks from the end of August until mid-September. Its aim is to present the main schools and arguments in legal theory to lawyers or law students who lack any substantial background in legal theory. It combines lectures with recommended readings and discussions on topics of current interest.


PROGRAMME


1. Lectures on various topics (2,5 hours each)

Hereafter, the title and content of the lectures on specific topics are given in the language which will be used for teaching (English or French).

As a rule, teaching hours will be 10.00 a.m. till 12.30 noon (including time for questions and discussion), on Mondays, Tuesdays, Thurs­days and Fridays, during the three weeks and 2.30 p.m. till 5.00 p.m. on the afternoons during the first week.

These lectures are meant to be basic. No preliminary reading of texts is required.


Yves CARTUYVELS: Les droits de l'Homme, frein ou facteur de criminalisation ? (29.8 - 14.30)

Les droits de l'homme ont été conçus à la fin du XVIIIe siècle dans une perspective "garantiste" destinée à servir de "bouclier" pour le justiciable dans sa confrontation à la justice pénale étatique. Selon certains, le code pénal pouvait même à certains égards se lire comme "l'envers de la déclaration des droits de l'homme". Aujourd'hui, dans un contexte marqué par le retour de la victime, la fonction des droits de l'homme pourrait bien changer de nature : associée à la fonction "épée" du droit pénal, elle pourrait favoriser une extension de la criminalisation et un durcissement de la pénalité. On s'interrogera sur cette mutation de l'instrumentalisation des droits de l'homme qui pousse à une "criminalisation du monde".


Erik CLAES: Punishment, Human Dignity and the Criminal Law (31.8 – 10.00)

This lecture starts from an analysis of the penal apparatus seen as a complex social phenomenon serving a multiplicity of societal functions. These penal functions, however, are in permanent tension with the basic value of (respect for) human dignity, which brings us to one of the main issues of Criminal Law Theory: to what extent does the Criminal Law possess enough conceptual and normative resources (by means of its principles, concepts) to overcome the aforementioned tension between penal functions, on the one hand, and the value of human dignity on the other ?


Bart DU LAING: Evolutionary Analysis in Law: Towards a New Kind of 'Natural Law'? (16.9 – 10.00)

Law aims at regulating and influencing human behavior. Legal scholarship thus studies in essence human behavior, hence the importance of incorporating evolutionary behavioral models – which provide ultimate explanations for the studied behavior – in theoretical legal analysis. The lecture will provide an overview of the different evolutionary approaches to human behavior and of the ways in which these approaches can be and have been put to use in social sciences as the law.


Christophe EBERHARD: Towards an intercultural Legal Theory - Perspectives from the Anthropology of Law (2.9 - 10.00)(cette conférence peut aussi se donner en français)

Contemporary debates about globalisation, governance and human rights make it more and more clear that the Western concept of Law has to take up the challenges of interculturalism. This is true on the one hand in the field of action. Negating cultural diversity has proved to hinder a successful transfer of Western legal institutions towards the rest of the world - taking into acount non-Western theories and practices thus appears increasingly paramount. The challenge of interculturalism also becomes more and more obvious in the field of theoretical research on law, as the Western character of the current paradigms appears more and more clearly. Anthropology of Law, one of whose aims it is to give a definition of "Law" through a comparison of our diverse cultural experiences can open useful paths to rethink our concept and praxis of Law.


René FOQUE: Judicial activism (8.9 - 10.00)

Much has been said and much has been written about the extensive and increasing use of judicial decision-making as an instrument of political, moral or socio-economic reform. Can the interpretative role of the judiciary bring the judge in the position of a (quasi)legislator ? How far can the judge go in the exercise of his discretion when he has to interpret the law in order to make the law more responsive to the changing context of society ? These questions will be analysed in the perspective of Montesquieu's classical theory of the balance of powers as a necessary condition for a moderate - democratic - legal order.


Benoît FRYDMAN: Co-regulation: a New Legal Model for Global Governance?(13.9 – 10.00) (cette conférence peut se donner en anglais ou en français)

Cette conférence présentera les modèles de régulation juridique de l'internet. On prendra pour base de réflexion la régulation des discours de haine dans un contexte marqué par l'opposition des régimes juridiques européen et américain.


Jean-Pierre KILENDA: Etat de droit et normes pénales: entre dogmatisme et pragmatisme (30.8 – 14.30)

Dégagés notamment par L. Fuller et rappelés par F. Ost, certains principes qui forment la substance de l’Etat de droit sont aujourd’hui mis à mal par un certain pragmatisme pénal lors du processus législatif répressif. Ici, la réflexion porte sur le point de savoir si ce pragmatisme est rationnel. Oeuvre-t-il pour la consolidation de l’Etat de droit ou, au contraire, le compromet-il au nom d’autres raisons inavouées ? L’homéostasie des règles de droit n’est-elle pas finalement régressive ? La violation justifiée, calculée, mathématiquement exacte et dosée desdits principes ne comble-t-elle pas en réalité un déficit de légalité mortifère à l’Etat de droit ?

Tels sont les questionnements qui requièrent une réponse à partir de l’analyse de quelques législations pénales modernes gagnées par le courant pragmatique dans la phase de la criminalisation primaire.


Christophe MINCKE: La médiation pénale: résoudre les conflits pénaux sans recours à l'autorité (30.8 – 10.00)

Les procédures de médiation bénéficient d'un engouement sans précédent dans tous les domaines du droit. Le droit pénal n'y échappe pas. On peut cependant s'interroger sur la signification de l'introduction en cette matière d'un mode de résolution des conflits qui fait largement l'économie de la référence à la loi. Assistons-nous à la naissance de modes non autoritaires de résolution des conflits pénaux? La question de la légitimité démocratique de l'intervention répressive se pose-t-elle dans le cas de la médiation pénale? Dans l'affirmative, qu'est-il fait pour la rencontrer?


Paolisa NEBBIA: Tradition and interpretation in law (6.9 – 10.00)

In investigating the nature of law, Krygier (1986) notes that any change - even a radical one- in legislation enters a continuing tradition which probably affected the way in which it was drafted and certainly will affect the ways in which it is read and applied. The lecture seeks to give an example, drawn from contract law, of the inescapability of tradition in drafting and interpreting law. More specifically, the lecture will examine how tradition has affected the implementation and the interpretation of EC Directive 93/13 in two countries where dramatic divergence in legal thinking, values, method, and in the perception of the role of judges in the society entailed, before the Directive, two substantially different forms of unfair terms control.


François OST: Droit et littérature. L'exemple du droit des contrats (1.9 – 10.00)

Le courant Droit et littérature représente une nouvelle manière, originale, de faire de la théorie du droit. Il est en plein développement, notamment aux Etats-Unis. Ce courant se propose d'explorer les différents types de rapport qui s'établissent entre le droit, la langue et la littérature (droit dans la littérature, droit et littérature, droit comme littérature, droit de la littérature). On se propose d'explorer un exemple de la première perspective à propos de la question du temps dans le contrat. Le point de départ de l'analyse sera fourni par l'étude du Marchand de Venise de Shakespeare et du Faust de Goethe.


Pierre-Arnaud PERROUTY: Désobéissance et démocratie (1.9 – 14.30)

Au départ de la prétention du droit à un caractère universel et obligatoire, on analysera le rapport dialectique entre obéissance et désobéissance à la loi: quelles sont les raisons qui fondent notre obéissance, quelles en sont les limites et quelles sont les tensions entre ces raisons et la liberté individuelle ? On pourra alors tenter de préciser le concept de désobéissance civile, d'en rechercher le fondement (juridique, moral, politique ?) et d'en évaluer la place au sein de la société démocratique.


Valentin PETEV: Droits individuels dans le contexte de mondialisation (15.9 – 10.00)

Les mutations du droit au cours du 20ième siècle nécessitent une réconceptualisation des droits individuels. Les paradigmes postmodernes (pragmatisme, décentrement du sujet, pluralisme des rationalités, polycentricité, complexité) ont fortement relativisé les positions initiales et les présupposés philosophique d'une tradition libérale, individualiste. La mondialisation, avec ses paradigmes de 'droit flou', de pluralisme juridique, de modes alternatifs de règlement des conflits, e.a., a comme corollaire nécessaire la société civile (nouveaux acteurs sociaux, gouvernance publique avec des droits individuels à la participation dans l'exercice du pouvoir à différents niveaux)


Mark VAN HOECKE: European Legal Integration (5.9 – 10.00)

Some theoretical problems of comparative law, as related to the harmonisation of private law in Europe, will be discussed. It will be shown how an insight into traditional problems of legal theory (definition and structure of legal systems, nature and structure of norms, etc.) is needed for the discussion on such a process of legal integration. This will be followed by a brief discussion of the different possible roads towards a harmonisation of private law in Europe (legal science or legal practice, legislation or judge made law, etc..).


Luc WINTGENS: Law and religion. From foundation to interaction (9.9 – 10.00)

This seminar focuses on the idea that law is said to be originating in morality and religion, c.q. a religious morality. Secularisation of law and morality includes that the theological foundations are cut of. The vocabulary, however, of religion, is kept intact and serves in our current thought-patterns as points of reference to a reality that is not believed in any more. Despite this loss of faith, the vocabulary of canon law and theology is kept alive in our legal vocabulary. This causes some problems of interpretation, on which attention will we drawn.


Ahmed ZIAUDDIN: Law on Revolution (12.9 – 10.00)

The lecture will start with brief reviews of general principles on norms, hierarchy of norms, basic norms, etc. This will then be followed by a general introduction to the breakdown of legal orders, either through revolution or otherwise, and to how the process has to be resolved in law. A number of concrete examples of revolution or breakdown will be used to illustrate the principles and problems involved.


2. General overview lectures (24 hours)


Topical lectures are complemented by a series of lectures that offer a general overview of schools, authors and arguments in twentieth century and current legal theory. These lectures will be taught by Frank Fleerackers and will take place in the afternoon in the 2nd and 3rd week (2.30 - 4.00 and 4.30 - 6.00 p.m., every working day).

The teaching language will be English.

The purpose of the course is to provide a general overview of the field of jurisprudence in 20th century. Therefore, its focus on general problems (definition, scope and methods of legal theory; natural law and positivism; legalism), specific fields and schools (the Pure Theory of Law, American and Scandinavian Realism, Critical Legal Studies, Law and Economics, argumentation and legitimation) as well as on the work of leading scholars in jurisprudence (including Kelsen, Hart, Dworkin, Raz, Aarnio, Alexy, e.a.)


3. Social programme


A social programme will also be worked out, partly depending on the number of participants in the summer course and their interests.

ACCOMMODATION and MEALS

 

Accommodation will be provided for all participants, in the neighbourhood of the university. The fees include the rent for the room from Monday 28 August till Saturday September 16th. Earlier arrival is possible subject to prior arrangement. As a rule, the use of the room cannot be extended beyond Sunday 17 September.
However, a room cannot be guaranteed if payment did not reach us before the end of June. Breakfast is not served.
For lunch and/or dinner meal tickets are available for various kinds of restaurants in the immediate neighbourhood of the university.
Prices are between 6 and 9 € for a full meal, including one drink. The welcome lunch on Tuesday 30 August is included.


FEES

The fees for the summer course are 750 €. They include access to the lectures and special sessions, to the library and computer facilities, accommodation and some limited documentation. Meals are not included. For those who would not need accommodation the fees are 500 €.

Fees have to be paid on the account 210-0680761-67 (BIC : GEBABEBB; IBAN : BE93 2100 6807 6167 at the Fortis Bank, Warandeberg 3, 1000 Brussel) of the Katholieke Universi¬teit Brussel, Vrijheidslaan 17, B-1081 Brussels, mentioning "Summer Course LT", before July 1st. (Payments should be free of all charges to beneficiary). For payments after 1 July accommodation can not be guaranteed.

Copyright by European Association for the Teaching of Legal Theory